This course enables students to broaden their understanding of relationships and extend their problem-solving and algebraic skills through investigation, the effective use of technology, and abstract reasoning. Students will explore quadratic relations and their applications; solve and apply linear systems; verify properties of geometric figures using analytic geometry; and investigate the trigonometry of right and acute triangles. Students will reason mathematically and communicate their thinking as they solve multi-step problems.
|Unit Titles and Descriptions||Time Allocated|
Linear relationships are not only important to understand for everyday use – understanding the interplay between distance and time for the calculation of speed, or rates of change in business, for example. Linear relationships are also fundamental to more complex forms of mathematics. This unit reviews the concepts of linear algebra that were developed in Grade 9, and expands upon important procedures such as rearranging equations and developing accurate graphs.
Expanding upon the foundation built in the last unit, the equations of lines and line segments will be examined. Developing logical and mathematical methods for determining line segment length and midpoint, based upon an equation or upon coordinates, will enable a deeper study of geometric shapes and properties.
To progress beyond a certain point in any mathematics, some rather advanced algebraic skills must first be mastered. In this unit, students will consider various operations on monomials, binomials and polynomials. Factoring of binomials and trinomials will be studied.
Until this point, all algebraic relations that have been considered have been linear. In this unit, second-order functions are introduced. The concept of the function will be studied; the domain, range and simple transformations of quadratic functions will be explored; and students will learn how to complete the square.
Having explored quadratic functions graphically, the algebra of quadratic equations will be considered. The Quadratic Formula, which will be used extensively throughout all future math courses, will be derived and used.
Triangles have a particularly significant role to play in mathematics. This unit is all about triangles and how they can be used to describe many phenomena in the universe. A review of Pythagorean Theorem will start the discussion, which will lead the student through sine, cosine and tangent ratios, the sine law and cosine law, and the ability to solve problems using these tools.
This is a proctored exam worth 30% of your final grade.
Overall Curriculum Expectations
|A. Quadratic Relations of the Form y = ax2 + bx + c|
|A1||determine the basic properties of quadratic relations;|
|A2||relate transformations of the graph of y = x2 to the algebraic representation y = a(x – h)2 + k;|
|A3||solve quadratic equations and interpret the solutions with respect to the corresponding relations;|
|A4||solve problems involving quadratic relations.|
|B. Analytic Geometry|
|B1||model and solve problems involving the intersection of two straight lines;|
|B2||solve problems using analytic geometry involving properties of lines and line segments;|
|B3||verify geometric properties of triangles and quadrilaterals, using analytic geometry.|
|C1||use their knowledge of ratio and proportion to investigate similar triangles and solve problems related to similarity;|
|C2||solve problems involving right triangles, using the primary trigonometric ratios and the Pythagorean theorem;|
|C3||solve problems involving acute triangles, using the sine law and the cosine law.|
Teaching and Learning Strategies:
The over-riding aim of this course is to help students use the language of mathematics skillfully, confidently and flexibly, a wide variety of instructional strategies are used to provide learning opportunities to accommodate a variety of learning styles, interests, and ability levels. The following mathematical processes are used throughout the course as strategies for teaching and learning the concepts presented.
- Problem Solving: This course scaffolds learning by providing students with opportunities to review and activate prior knowledge (e.g. reviewing order of operations from prior mathematics courses), and build off of this knowledge to acquire new skills. The course guides students toward recognizing opportunities to apply knowledge they have gained to solve problems.
- Connecting: This course connects the concepts taught to real-world applications (e.g. connecting quadratic equations to projectile motion problems).
- Representing: Through the use of examples, practice problems, and solution videos, the course models various ways to demonstrate understanding, poses questions that require students to use different representations as they are working at each level of conceptual development – concrete, visual or symbolic, and allows individual students the time they need to solidify their understanding at each conceptual stage.
- Self-Assessment: Through the use of interactive activities (e.g. multiple choice quizzes, and drag-and-drop activities) students receive instantaneous feedback and are able to self-assess their understanding of concepts.
Assessment, Evaluation and Reporting Strategies of Student Performance:
Our theory of assessment and evaluation follows the Ministry of Education’s Growing Success document, and it is our firm belief that doing so is in the best interests of students. We seek to design assessment in such a way as to make it possible to gather and show evidence of learning in a variety of ways to gradually release responsibility to the students, and to give multiple and varied opportunities to reflect on learning and receive detailed feedback.
Growing Success articulates the vision the Ministry has for the purpose and structure of assessment and evaluation techniques. There are seven fundamental principles that ensure best practices and procedures of assessment and evaluation by ICE teachers. ICE assessments and evaluations,
- are fair, transparent, and equitable for all students;
- support all students, including those with special education needs, those who are learning the language of instruction (English or French), and those who are First Nation, Métis, or Inuit;
- are carefully planned to relate to the curriculum expectations and learning goals and, as much as possible, to the interests, learning styles and preferences, needs, and experiences of all students;
- are communicated clearly to students and parents at the beginning of the course and at other points throughout the school year or course;
- are ongoing, varied in nature, and administered over a period of time to provide multiple opportunities for students to demonstrate the full range of their learning;
- provide ongoing descriptive feedback that is clear, specific, meaningful, and timely to support improved learning and achievement;
- develop students’ self-assessment skills to enable them to assess their own learning, set specific goals, and plan next steps for their learning.
The Final Grade:
The evaluation for this course is based on the student’s achievement of curriculum expectations and the demonstrated skills required for effective learning. The final percentage grade represents the quality of the student’s overall achievement of the expectations for the course and reflects the corresponding level of achievement as described in the achievement chart for the discipline. A credit is granted and recorded for this course if the student’s grade is 50% or higher. The final grade will be determined as follows:
- 70% of the grade will be based upon evaluations conducted throughout the course. This portion of the grade will reflect the student’s most consistent level of achievement throughout the course, although special consideration will be given to more recent evidence of achievement.
- 30% of the grade will be based on final evaluations administered at the end of the course. The final assessment may be a final exam, a final project, or a combination of both an exam and a project.
The Report Card:
Student achievement will be communicated formally to students via an official report card. Report cards are issued at the midterm point in the course, as well as upon completion of the course. Each report card will focus on two distinct, but related aspects of student achievement. First, the achievement of curriculum expectations is reported as a percentage grade. Additionally, the course median is reported as a percentage. The teacher will also provide written comments concerning the student’s strengths, areas for improvement, and next steps. Second, the learning skills are reported as a letter grade, representing one of four levels of accomplishment. The report card also indicates whether an OSSD credit has been earned. Upon completion of a course, ICE will send a copy of the report card back to the student’s home school (if in Ontario) where the course will be added to the ongoing list of courses on the student’s Ontario Student Transcript. The report card will also be sent to the student’s home address.
Program Planning Considerations:
Teachers who are planning a program in this subject will make an effort to take into account considerations for program planning that align with the Ontario Ministry of Education policy and initiatives in a number of important areas.